Installing Certificate Services on Windows 2000 is quite simple, though the choices available to you will again depend on your environment. For the purpose of this illustration I will walk through the process of creating a Standalone Root CA – mainly because my computer is not configured as a domain member at the moment. Since it is not installed by default, you will need to add Certificate Services using the Add/Remove Programs – Windows Components option in Control Panel.
Note that when you attempt to choose Certificate Services, you will be presented with the dialog box shown below. Note the fact that you will not be able to rename the system or join or be removed from a domain without first uninstalling Certificate Services.
After choosing Next, you will be asked to decide what type of CA you wish to create. My system has only the Standalone CA options available, since it is not a member of an Active Directory domain.
Note that the Advanced options checkbox on the screenshot above will allow you to choose advanced cryptographic options in the key generation process. I would suggest allowing the default values to be used unless you are certain of the need to make other choices.
Clicking Next again will bring you into the CA Identification screen, where you should enter the appropriate information. Note that while not all fields are mandatory, they should be completed in full.
The final screen in the process asks for where you wish to place configuration and logging data.
Once Certificate Services is installed, the Server is ready to accept certificate requests from clients. For a Standalone CA these requests must be made a web browser by accessing the certificate server using the URL http://computername/certsrv. A wizard that walks you through the process step-by-step handles the actual request process.
The certificate request process also includes providing information about the user, the use of the certificate, and so forth. I am requesting a certificate to secure email.
After the request is completed, the user is presented with the following message. Note that the request has been made, but the certificate will not be issued until approved by the Administrator.
The approval process for a requested certificate is pretty straightforward. Using the Certificate Authority tool in Administrative Tools, open the Pending Requests option, and choose to Issue the certificate or deny the request.
Note that once completed, the user can again access the Certificate Services web site and download and install their new certificate. The certificate just issued will now be found in the Issued Certificates section from the screen above, and can be revoked from this interface as well. In an Active Directory environment, note that users can also request certificates using the Certificates MMC snap-in, or can be configured for auto-enrollment of certificates (on both a user and computer basis) via Group Policy. In large environments running an Enterprise CA, this is often the most practical idea.