Since the basics of this topic were looked at in previous articles, my intention is to look at some of the more advanced options here. For the purpose of review, the basics of group policy are outlined below.
In an Active Directory environment, group policy allows us to distribute software to users and computers using a repackaged file format, .msi. When software is deployed using group policy, the user needs no special privileges, since the software is installed using the elevated privileges of policy. If a vendor does not provide an msi file for their software, you can use a repackaging program, such as WinInstall LE (found on the Windows 2000 CD) to create one. The two basic options when deploying software via group policy are to either Assign or Publish it. Software can be either published or assigned to users. If assigned, the software appears to ‘follow’ the user, regardless of where they log on. Shortcuts appear on the start menu, but the software isn’t actually installed until they click on the shortcut. When assigned to a computer, the software is installed on that computer the next time it reboots, and is available to all users of the system. When software is published (which can only be done to users, not computers), the software is available to install from Add/Remove programs, and can also be installed by document invocation (when a user click on a file type associated with that application). Publishing software makes it available to users, but doesn’t create the illusion that it is actually installed. An application can also be published using a .zap file, if an msi does not exist or if one cannot be created. Note that if a .zap file is used, the user will require a level of privilege suitable to install the application. Also note that software deployment options are only applicable for Windows 2000-based systems, and would not be applied if a user logged on to Windows 98, for example.
The Software Settings area of group policy is where the publishing or assigning options are set. When an application is deployed by group policy, the first option that must be chosen is whether the application will be published or assigned.
The advanced elements of software deployment can be set up when you originally choose to deploy the software (by choosing Advanced published or assigned as shown above), or later by accessing the properties of the deployed software. The advanced properties allow you to control a number of elements with respect to the deployment, including the addition of upgrades or patches, modifications, as well as uninstalling packages.
There are 6 property sheets associated with advanced application deployment, and you should be familiar with them. The general tab lists basic information about the package (such as the version number), while the security tab contains the ACL for the object. The deployment tab, shown below, controls whether the application is published or assigned (which can be changed). If published, you can control whether or not the application will be installed by document invocation (this option is grayed out when you choose to assign an application).
Note the option to uninstall the application when it falls out of the scope of management. If this is chosen, and the GPO that deployed the software no longer applies (for example if a user or computer object was moved), then the software would be automatically uninstalled. The installation user interface options allow you to control how much interaction the user will have during the installation process.
The upgrades tab (shown below) allows you to automate the deployment of patches and upgrades (such as newer versions) to applications that have already been deployed via group policy. If the upgrade is made mandatory (the required option is selected) then the upgrade will be applied, and the user will only be able to use the updated version. If it were not made mandatory, then the user would be able to use both the old and new versions of the software. This is potentially useful when a new application is not backwards compatible.
The categories tab allows you to create and control the way that applications are presented in Add/Remove programs. For example, you could create categories for each type of software, such as graphics applications, word processors, and so forth. This section would allow you to group the newly published application into one of those categories in order to make it easier for a user to install the correct application.
Finally, the modifications tab (shown below) allows you to further customize a package for users with special needs. For example if you wanted to deploy a language-specific dictionary for users in different offices, you could apply a modification to the package. Modifications are made in the form of .mst files (also known as transform files). For those who are interested, there is a utility provided with the Office 2000 resource kit to create .mst files.