Like in the world of IPv4, a unicast transmission represents data meant for a single destination address only. However, IPv6 uses a few different types of unicast addresses for different purposes. These include global, site-local, link-local, and IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses. Each is outlined below.
Global Unicast Address. Very similar in function to an IPv4 unicast address such as 18.104.22.168, these addresses include a global routing prefix, a subnet ID, and an interface ID as outlined earlier.
Site-Local Unicast Address. Very similar in function to the IPv4 private address space that includes ranges like 10.0.0.0/8, these addresses are meant for internal communications and are not routable on the public Internet. Site-local addresses start with the prefix FEC0::/10, and then include the appropriate subnet ID and interface ID as outlined earlier.
Link-Local Unicast Address. For certain communications that are meant to stay within a given broadcast domain, IPv6 uses link-local addresses. These addresses are used for features like stateless autoconfiguration, which will be looked at shortly. Link-local addresses start with the prefix FE80::/10, and then include an interface ID. Note that since these addresses never communicate outside of their local subnet, the subnet ID is not included.
IPv4-mapped IPv6 Address. For environments that are transitioning between IPv4 and IPv6, IPv6 provides another type of unicast address known as an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address. This addressing method is used on systems running both an IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stack. When used, a system will include its current 32-bit IPv4 address in the low-order bits of an IPv6 address, preceded by 16 bits set to FFFF, and the remaining bits set to 0. For example, a host with the IPv4 address 22.214.171.124 would use the address of 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:126.96.36.199.