If you have worked with any flavor of Unix you have no doubt encountered the shell script. Shell scripts are one of the most important aspects of a Unix system. In fact, virtually all operations that take place on a Unix computer are accomplished via shell scripts. Shell scripts can range in complexity from simple to massive. In my installation article you encountered the ./configure and ./make scripts. If you use VI to review the source of these scripts, it can be overwhelming. In this article I will unravel some of the basics of shell scripting. This is part 1 of a three part series on shell scripting. The next article will address manipulation of command input and output.
What is a Script?
A script is a series of statements that are used to construct an operation. Scripts are often used to automate repetitive tasks and to simplify complex ones. One of the biggest advantages that Unix has traditionally held over systems such as Windows and Netware is its ability to automate tasks without the need for complex programming languages. That is changing however. On Windows, the Windows Script Host (WSH) is used to provide command line access to languages such as VBScript, and Jscript, as well as a host of others. This replaces the primitive batch file mechanism that many people are familiar with. Netware provides a powerful logon script language. Regardless of the source of implementation, scripts generally provide similar functionality. Below is a list of common features found in script engines:
Temporary storage of information: Maintain state of counters, names, etc. Usually accomplished through variables.
Conditional Logic: Allows you to change the path of execution based on changing conditions and values. This is accomplished via IF statements and LOOP constructs.
Arrays: Tables of data based in memory.
Access to key operating system functions: Allows the manipulation of the computer and its contents outside of the scope of the file system. On Windows this is done via ADSI (Active Directory Scripting Interface) and Network and File System objects. On Unix everything is in the file system, so this is done by reading from and writing to files.
Command Line Execution: Administrators can run scripts by executing a command at a prompt. In Windows this is done via WSH and on Unix by the Execute (x) bit.